Researching the development and concepts surrounding Hypertext there certain names that tend to reappear. Some are already inscribed in history. The subject of Hypertext primarily identifies heroes in the fields
of Computer/Information Science
and Literature Studies.
As a tangent, if there is such a thing, I will put in a few Language and Writing
references. Because the next step is to let go of the Hypertext concept and move on to Cybernetic Systems and Consciousness studies.


Prophets: Literature and Writing

[Theories are theories
so I will list some
project sites as well.
Not that a theory site
can't be a project site.]


Umberto Eco
[I share some of the concerns identified by Eco in the document.]
Eternal Fascism: Fourteen ways of looking at a blackshirt
[1st paragraph]
" In spite of some fuzziness regarding the difference between various historical forms of fascism, I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. --- despotism or fanaticism. But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it.
[final paragraph]
" Ur-Fascism is still around us, sometimes in plainclothes. It would be so much easier for us if there appeared on the world scene somebody saying, "I want to reopen Auschwitz, I want the Blackshirts to parade again in the Italian squares." Life is not that simple.
Ur-Fascism can come back under the most innocent of disguises. Our duty is to uncover it and to point our finger at any of its new instances — every day, in every part of the world. Franklin Roosevelt’s words of November 4, 1938, are worth recalling: "If American democracy ceases to move forward as a living force, seeking day and night by peaceful means to better the lot of our citizens, fascism will grow in strength in our land." Freedom and liberation are an unending task."

George P. Landow
[ I first came across Landow while reading up on postmodernism in general.]

Manuel DeLanda
Deleuze and the Open-ended Becoming of the World.
"The distinction between the possible and the real assumes a set of predefined forms (or essences) which acquire physical reality as material forms that resemble them."

Howard S. Becker
Theory: The Necessary Evil
" Who are we kidding with all this science talk? Why don't we admit that what we do is just another kind of story, no better or worse than any other fiction?
" ---vulnerable to --- paralyze thought and will and work--- the evil is serious.
To repeat, we still have to do the theoretical work, but we needn't think we are being especially virtuous when we do. Theory is a dangerous, greedy animal, and we need to be alert to keep it in its cage."

Michael Joyce
Hypertext Narrative
" Hypertext is authentically concerned with the serial rather than the structural;
[ serial and/is structural ] with being for space rather than in space; [ in/for ]with consciousness rather than [ and ] information; with creating knowledge rather than [ and ] the mere ordering or preservation of the known; with presence rather than [ and ] representation. The value produced by its readers is constrained by systems which refuse them the centrality of their authorship. What is at risk is both mind and history."

Jim Rosenberg
Navigating Nowhere / Hypertext Infrawhere
"In [Mou92b] Stuart Moulthrop asks: "Why does the hypertext research community publish its work in print?" At the risk of seeming glib, the answer is obvious: because hypertext is not our native tongue. Many will surely balk at the idea that this needn't be so, that there can exist a natural language in which hypertext carries the very structure of syntax itself: hypertext not as a medium of organizing thoughts, [ no? isn't it? ] but as a medium of thought. [ method/process is medium ] Perhaps in the end this will turn out to be unachievable, but as a focus for poetic experimentation it provides this author with a sustaining vision."

Jerome McGann
The Rationale of HyperText
"Lofty reflections on the cultural significance of information technology are commonplace now. Tedious as they can be, they serve an important social function. Some distribute general knowledge to society at large, some send it to particular groups whose professional history makes information about information an important and perhaps problematic issue.

Stuart Moulthrop

Jay David Bolter
" My primary interest is the computer as a new medium for verbal and visual communication."

Paul Delany

Richard Grusin

Catherine C. Marshall
[gosh, a woman! I want to note that I have not been doing my research from a gender specific perspective. If I were to run my searches focusing on women I would find women. But I am going for subjects and not genders. And I think it is worth recognizing that yet again, as in all areas of our civilization's history and culture knowledge and information is dominated by men. Authorities are men. Heroes are men. Anglo Saxon Men.
When will this change? ]

Literary Theory links




The RMIT HyperText project Hypertext References

Hyperizons: Theory and Criticism of Hypertext Fiction
Hyperizons: hypertext fiction

The Electronic Labyrinth Home Page
[the Timeline at is a nice illustration of problems with PostModernism]


Bohemian Ink: literary underground review


Eastgate Systems Inc.

Projects or Examples

Forward Anywhere by Judy Malloy and Cathy Marshall [about]

hypertext hotel

under the ashes

Electronic chronicles

THE LUMINOUS DOME by Stephen Linhart


h y p e r t e x t h y p e r t e x t